What is acne?
Acne is a disorder resulting from the action of hormones on the skin's oil (sebaceous) glands. This leads to plugged pores and development of whiteheads, blackheads, inflamed bumps, pustules, nodules or cysts, all of which come under the heading acne.
What are the common sites of acne?
The common sites for acne are the face, chest, back and upper arms.
Is acne a serious health hazard?
Although acne is not a serious health hazard, it may lead to severe, disfiguring and permanent, scarring. Acne often causes profound mental anguish and loss of self-esteem.
What causes acne?
Acne is caused by the action of androgens (male hormones) on sebaceous glands. These hormones are present in females as well as males. Under the action of these androgens, the sebaceous glands make more oil. The cells lining the ducts of these glands also change in character and become sticky, thereby blocking the opening of the follicle. In addition, there is multiplication of P. acnes bacteria and production of irritating substances, resulting in inflammation.
What role does diet play in acne?
Acne is not caused by any particular food or oil in the diet. Avoid any foods which seem to worsen your acne and for your overall health eat a balanced diet - but the diet shouldn't really matter if the acne is being treated correctly.
What is the best way to treat acne?
There are many excellent treatments for acne. At Indian BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology, Dr. Dutta will formulate a specific treatment plan designed for your type of skin and acne. Dr. Dutta uses topical antibiotics, topical retinoids, other topical medication, oral antibiotics, oral retinoids, cyproterone acetate, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) 660 light to treat acne. As you can see from the pictures on our website, we can help you overcome your acne.
Is it harmful to squeeze my pimples?
Yes. In general, patients should not pick or squeeze their acne. Squeezing may force infected material deeper into the skin, causing more inflammation and possible scarring.
What can be done for acne scars?
It is best to prevent scars from occurring by treating acne properly. However, if scarring has already occurred, Dr. Dutta may choose to treat with chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency or carbon dioxide laser resurfacing or Intense Pulsed Light to reduce the scars.
How fast will my acne respond to treatment?
It takes 6 - 8 weeks to start seeing improvement, so do not get discouraged early and stop the treatment. If there is no improvement at all after 8 weeks, Dr. Dutta will probably make changes in your treatment plan.
My ointments work on the spots where I apply, but I keep getting new acne elsewhere. What should I do?
Topical acne medication should be used on all acne-prone areas e.g. forehead, cheeks, chin and nose. The goal is not only to get rid of existing lesions but also to prevent new ones. At Indian BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology, Kolkata, we have Intense Pulsed Light. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will carefully evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your acne.
What is psoriasis?
The term psoriasis comes, which means, “to itch”. However only 50% psoriasis patients have itching. Psoriasis is a chronic (long-lasting), non-contagious skin disease, usually presenting with red patches covered with silvery scales. Its incidence is about 2%. Approximately 10 – 30% of psoriasis sufferers also experience inflammation of the joints called psoriatic arthritis.
Are there different types of psoriasis?
Psoriasis may affect different parts of the body and also look different in different areas.
1) Discoid or plaque psoriasis - Silvery, scaly areas are seen usually on the elbows, knees, scalp and trunk.
2) Nail psoriasis - There is loosening, lifting, discoloration and thickening of the nails.
3) Scalp psoriasis - There may be dandruff-like scales or thick scabs on the scalp. These may be the first sign of psoriasis in the patient.
4) Guttate psoriasis - This usually occurs in children after a streptococcal sore throat. Small pink areas of scaling, resembling raindrops, are seen on the trunk.
5) Flexural or inverse psoriasis - This type of psoriasis appears as glazed red patches without scaling in the armpits and groins and under the breasts.
6) Napkin psoriasis - This appears as glazed red patches in the napkin area in babies.
7) Generalised pustular psoriasis - At first there is reddening of the skin all over the body. Then small pustules appear on the skin. Soon there are lakes of pus under the skin. The patient has high fever and a rapid pulse. He / she needs quick hospitalization, as the condition is life- threatening.
8) Generalised erythrodermic psoriasis - There is redness and scaling all over the body with accompanying fever and lymph-node enlargement. Like generalized pustular psoriasis, this condition is also life-threatening and the patient needs immediate hospitalisation.
9) Palmoplantar pustulosis - There are deep-seated pustules and dark red crusts on the palms and soles.
10) Psoriatic arthritis - The joints of the fingers, toes, spine and hips are affected.
What is the cause of psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a skin disorder driven by the immune system, especially involving a type of white blood cell called a T cell. Normally, T cells help protect the body against infection and disease. In the case of psoriasis, T cells are put into action by mistake and become so active that they trigger other immune responses, which lead to inflammation and to rapid turnover of skin cells.
Some people carry genes, which make them more prone to develop psoriasis. Those who already have psoriasis in the family carry these genes on chromosome 6, others on chromosome 8.
The following can also trigger off psoriasis -
- Emotional stress
- Injury to the skin
- Streptococcal throat infection
- Drugs e.g. anti-malarials like chloroquine and mefloquine, blood pressure lowering agents like beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and captopril, painkillers like aspirin, cholesterol lowering agents like gemfibrozil, psychiatric medicines like lithium, systemic steroids and alcohol intake.
Is there a cure for psoriasis?
There is as yet no cure for psoriasis but with the various available treatment options, it is possible to clear psoriasis for periods of time. With the development of biologic treatments, a cure may be round the corner.
How effective is ultraviolet light therapy?
Ultraviolet light or UV light is used for more extensive skin involvement. This form of treatment is very successful and safer to use than many of the oral medications.
What is narrow-band UVB phototherapy?
Narrow-band UVB phototherapy is a relatively new technology for treating psoriasis. Dr. Dutta uses Narrow-band UVB equipment to treat psoriasis at Indian BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology, Calcutta.
Can narrow band ultraviolet B be used to treat other skin diseases?
Apart from psoriasis, narrow band UVB is being used to treat vitiligo, atopic eczema, lichen planus, alopecia areata, persistent itching, pityriasis lichenoides and many other not so common skin diseases.
What are the advantages of narrow band UVB over PUVA (psoralen + UVA)?
Oral psoralen cannot be given to children and pregnant ladies. It also needs to be withdrawn if there are troublesome side-effects like nausea and vertigo. If oral psoralen is given, the patient needs sun-protection for the eyes for the next 24 hours. Narrow band UVB works well in most patients without psoralen. Therefore the problems linked to psoralen usage are not there with narrow band UVB. In addition exposure times are shorter and frequency (number of sessions per week) is also lower with narrow band UVB. NBUVB is today considered to be more effective in clearing the disease too.
Are there risks with the pills used for psoriasis?
Most of the pills that are used to treat psoriasis carry risks. These risks mostly involve either the liver or the kidney. Monitored correctly, the risk can be well controlled and the medications often allow for significant improvement. Should treatment with these medications be necessary, Dr. Dutta will be happy to discuss their risks and benefits with you in detail.
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have Narrow-band UVB phototherapy equipment. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your psoriasis.
What is vitiligo?
Vitiligo (rhymes with little-I-go) is often referred to as leucoderma by Indian patients. In this disease, white spots or patches appear on the skin. It is believed to be an autoimmune disease.
What is an autoimmune disease?
In an autoimmune disease, a person’s immune system produces antibodies against his / her own organs / tissues. In vitiligo, antibodies attack and destroy specialized cells in the skin (melanocytes), which are responsible for producing the skin pigment (melanin).
What are the distribution patterns of vitiligo?
1) There may be just one or a few white patches on the body. This is called focal vitiligo. 2) It may affect only one side of the body. This is termed segmental vitiligo. 3) When there are many white patches on the body, the condition is referred to as generalized vitiligo. 4) Sometimes the hair on the white patches also turns white. This is called leucotrichia. 5) In rare cases vitiligo can affect eye colour as well as the pigment in the retina.
What are the treatment options for vitiligo?
Vitiligo is a difficult disease to treat. Traditional therapies include -
1) Oral / local psoralens + UVA light (PUVA)
2) Steroid creams
Newer treatments include -
3) Narrow-band UVB light
4) Excimer lasers
5) Pseudocatalase cream
6) Topical and systemic immunomodulators
7) Vitiligo surgery
How long does it take to see improvement?
You should treat for at least 6 months before deciding that the method is not working. It may take 2 years or more to see good results.
What is narrow-band UVB phototherapy?
Narrow-band UVB phototherapy is a relatively new technology for treating vitiligo. Dr. Dutta uses Narrow-band UVB equipment to treat vitiligo at Indian BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology, Calcutta.
Can narrow band ultraviolet B be used to treat other skin diseases?
Apart from vitiligo, narrow band UVB is being used to treat psoriasis, atopic eczema, lichen planus, alopecia areata, acne, persistent itching, pityriasis lichenoides and many other not so common skin diseases.
What are the advantages of narrow band UVB over PUVA (psoralen + UVA)?
Oral psoralen cannot be given to children and pregnant ladies. It also needs to be withdrawn if there are troublesome side-effects like nausea and vertigo. If oral psoralen is given, patient needs sun-protection for the eyes for the next 24 hours. Narrow band UVB works well in most patients without psoralen. Therefore the problems linked to psoralen usage are not there with narrow band UVB. In addition exposure times are shorter and frequency (number of sessions per week) is also lower with narrow band UVB. NBUVB is today considered to be more effective in clearing the disease too.
What are tacrolimus and calcipotriol?
Tacrolimus and calcipotriol are immunomodulators that have shown promising results in vitiligo.
What is pseudocatalase?
Pseudocatalase cream, when applied twice daily over vitiligo patches, reduces levels of hydrogen peroxide in the skin. Used in combination with Narrow-band UVB, it has shown good results in vitiligo.
What is L-phenylalanine?
L-phenylalanine is a promising drug for childhood vitiligo. The patient takes the drug orally and then exposes the white patches to ultraviolet A light.
What is khellin?
Khellin is a substance chemically related to psoralen. It has been used topically and systemically with sunlight and UVA (KUVA).
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have Narrow-band UVB phototherapy equipment. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your vitiligo.
What are the commonly used methods of hair removal today?
Hair removal methods can be classified as
A) Temporary methods of hair removal include
1) Shaving – Contrary to popular belief, shaving does not make the hair coarser or grow faster. However most ladies with hair growth shun it as a masculine act, although shaving is quick and cheap.
2) Plucking / Tweezing / Threading / Waxing – These methods are also quick and cheap but sometimes lead to the development of black marks, boils or allergic rashes. Additionally, the hair has to be grown to a certain length before the procedure can be performed.
3) Chemical depilatories – These are also simple to use but may produce a primary irritant or allergic dermatitis. Chemical depilatories are salts of thioglycolic acid, which were patented in the 1930s for dehairing cattle hide.
4) Vaniqa cream – This is available in the US only on prescription and contains Eflornithine HCl 13.9%. It does
B) Long-term methods of hair removal include -
1) Electrolysis – This may be performed using a DC current (galvanic electrolysis), an AC current (thermolysis) or a mixture of AC and DC current (blend). Electrolysis is an effective method of long-term hair removal. However, it is painful and time-consuming and may lead to light or dark coloured scars.
2) Lasers – Laser machines emit light of a fixed wavelength. Melanin, the pigment present in dark hair, possesses the property to absorb light energy within a certain wavelength range. The hair then conducts this energy into the depth of the follicle. The cells in the follicle responsible for hair growth get heated up and eventually destroyed. The skin is not damaged. This is called selective photothermolysis.
3) Intense pulsed light – Unlike lasers, this system emits a broad light pulse spectrum (570 – 1200 nm). The wavelength is adjusted using cut-off filters. Shorter wavelengths are selected for light hair, light skin and superficial follicles. Longer wavelengths are selected for dark hair, dark skin and deep follicles. The treatment can thus be better customized than lasers to the patient’s skin and hair type.
Which is the system used for hair removal at BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata?
Dr. Dutta uses an Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) device from world leaders for permanent hair removal.
Can pigmented hairy lesions be treated with IPL?
Yes, it is possible to treat this type of lesion with IPL, due to the versatility of filters. IPL with longer filters can penetrate deeper than IPL with short filters. Thus, a shorter filter may be used to treat the superficial (epidermal) pigmented lesion and take care of the excessive pigment, whereas a longer filter may be applied for the hair removal.
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have an Intense Pulsed Light device from world leaders. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your kind of unwanted hair growth.
How are chemical peels graded?
Chemical peels may be graded, based on the depth of the procedure, as superficial, medium or deep.
Superficial chemical peels target part or all of the epidermis. Sometimes, a peel, which targets only the stratum corneum (dead cell layer of the epidermis), is called a very superficial peel.
Medium-depth chemical peels target the epidermis and part or all of the papillary dermis.
Deep peels target the epidermis, papillary dermis and superficial reticular dermis.
Asian skin is usually treated with superficial peels and only sometimes with medium depth peels.
What chemicals do peels contain?
Chemical peels may contain glycolic acid, also called alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), salicylic acid, also called beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs), trichloracetic acid (TCA), lactic acid, pyruvic acid, resorcinol, phenol or combinations of the above.
Which are the peels used at BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases?
Dr. Dutta usually relies on glycolic acid peels reputed to be the best in the world. He also uses TCA from various sources, including Easy TCA from Skin Tech, Spain. Easy TCA contains TCA, AHA and anti-oxidants
How does glycolic acid improve the skin?
Glycolic acid thins out the dead cell layer (stratum corneum). This makes the skin look better.
Glycolic acid thickens the deeper layers of the epidermis by stimulating cell multiplication. As skin aging is accompanied by thinning of the deeper layers of the epidermis, this effect makes the skin more youthful.
A superficial glycolic acid peel, without causing any deep injury, stimulates production of collagen and elastin in the dermis. This results in tightening of the skin and wrinkle improvement.
How long does it take to get a chemical peel done?
It may take 15 – 30 minutes to undergo a chemical peel.
Is it a painful affair?
A chemical peel is not painful, but there may be a mild itching or burning sensation for a few minutes.
Is there a lot of visible peeling? Do I need to take leave from work after a peel?
With Neostrata superficial glycolic acid peels, peeling occurs gently and invisibly. There is no need to miss out on work, studying and socialising after a superficial peel.
How often do I need to get a chemical peel done?
A chemical peel is usually performed every 4 weeks. However for stubborn problems, it can be repeated every 2 weeks.
What is a spot peel?
A spot peel is performed only on the lesion(s) and not the entire region. Spot peels are often used to treat freckles, acne and scars.
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have glycolic acid as well as TCA and phenol. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your kind of damaged skin.
What are dynamic wrinkles?
When we frown, smile or laugh, we contract muscles on our face. These muscles are situated below our skin and their contraction causes our skin to develop folds, often referred to as “worry lines”, “crow’s feet” or simply forehead lines. These are called dynamic wrinkles. With time, these lines become deeper and permanent.
Can dynamic wrinkles be treated?
A simple treatment with Botox Cosmetic injections can dramatically soften these facial expression lines, leaving you looking younger and more beautiful. This treatment is without surgery, scars and recovery time.
How does Botox work?
Facial expressions occur when the brain sends a signal via nerves to muscles on the face. Botox blocks the transmission of impulses from the nerve to the muscle. This relaxes the muscle, making the overlying skin smooth and unwrinkled. Botox works only on the injected muscles.
Is Botox injection painful?
As a very small quantity of material is injected using a very fine needle, Botox administration is virtually painless.
Where is Botox Cosmetic used?
At Indian BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology, Dr. Dutta uses Botox to treat frown lines between the eyebrows, horizontal forehead lines, crow’s feet or smile lines around the eyes, lines around the mouth (smoker’s lips) and neck lines. Dr. Dutta also uses Botox to achieve brow lifts and reduce sweating from the palms and armpits.
Is Botox safe?
Botox enjoys an excellent safety profile, as it has been in use for more than a decade in over 60 countries without a single reported permanent side-effect. Botox has not been tested and therefore should not be used on pregnant or breast-feeding ladies. After a Botox injection, there may be temporary local bruising or a temporary weakness of nearby muscles. These disappear fairly quickly.
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have Botox, Restylane, Sculptra, New-Fill, Silikon 1000 and Radiance injections, as well as Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), microdermabrasion, chemical peels and carbon dioxide laser to treat the aging skin. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will carefully evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your wrinkles.
What is microdermabrasion?
Medical grade aluminum oxide microcrystals are propelled at a high speed across the skin and then suctioned away and discarded. This creates a polishing effect and leaves the skin feeling remarkably smooth. Since microdermabrasion removes only the topmost layer of dead skin cells, it does not involve any pain or healing time.
Why is microdermabrasion called a “lunch-time peel”?
Microdermabrasion takes 15 - 20 minutes to perform. It does not require any anaesthesia or bandaging and it does not leave any telltale marks on the skin. As a person can leave office during the lunch-break, get a microdermabrasion done and return to office before the break is over, it is often termed a “lunch-time peel”.
How does microdermabrasion work?
The stimulated blood flow to the surface increases oxygenation, causing an enhancement of cell renewal and collagen re-growth. The gentle massaging action of the microdermabrasion treatment creates a flushing and cleansing effect below the skin surface, resulting in a vibrant healthy appearance and complexion.
At BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseases, Kolkata, we have the Delphia Microdermabrader. Our Dermatologist, Dr. Rathindra Nath Dutta, will evaluate your condition and design a treatment plan specific for your damaged skin./strong>
What does laser mean?
The word laser is an acronym that stands for light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation.
What is special about laser light?
Laser light has several features that differentiate it from conventional light.
1) Coherence - The emitted photons are spatially and temporally in phase with one another.
2) Monochromaticity - The emitted energy is of a single wavelength.
3) Collimation - The waves travel parallel to one another.
4) High intensity - The number of photons emitted by a laser per unit area is much greater than that emitted by any other source of electromagnetic radiation.
Due to these special properties, lasers have enabled Dermatologists to manage many conditions for which no effective treatment previously existed. Other conditions can be treated better with lasers than older methods.
What is the carbon dioxide laser?
The carbon dioxide laser emits an invisible beam of light of 10,600 nm wavelength. The water in the tissues precisely absorbs this energy and is instantly converted from liquid to gas, creating a plume of steam and smoke. As the zone of thermal injury is very small, the carbon dioxide laser allows performance of very precise and delicate surgery.
What are the different modes in which the carbon dioxide laser can be operated?
The carbon dioxide laser can be used in the focused mode as a cutting instrument. In the defocused mode it is used to precisely evaporate tissue.
What are the indications for excision surgery with the carbon dioxide laser?
The carbon dioxide laser is used in the excision mode in the following conditions – anticoagulation, vascular tumor, vascular anatomic location, keloids, rhinophyma, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cardiac pacemaker, cardiac monitoring, perforation of cranial bone, blepharoplasty and nail surgery.
What are the conditions treated by the carbon dioxide laser in vaporization mode?
The carbon dioxide laser is used in the vaporizational mode to treat the following conditions – acne scars, actinic cheilitis, adenoma sebaceum, balanitis xerotica obliterans, basal cell carcinoma, chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis, digital mucous cyst, epidermal nevus, erythroplasia of Querat, granuloma faciale, lentigines, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, lymphangioma circumscriptum, nail matricectomy, neurofibroma, nodular amyloidosis, ochronosis, porokeratosis, rhinophyma, steatocystoma, tattoo, trichoepithelioma, tricholemmoma, vascular lesions e.g. angiokeratoma, cherry angioma, pyogenic granuloma, telangiectasia and venous lake, vellus hair cyst, warts, xanthelasma and Zoon’s balanitis.
What is radiofrequency surgery?
Radiofrequency surgery is the use of a very high frequency radio wave (1.5 – 4.5 MHz) to perform skin, plastic and eyelid surgery. The advantage over conventional scalpel surgery is reduced tissue damage.
How does radiofrequency differ from electrocautery?
In electrocautery the electrode becomes hot, leading to more lateral tissue damage. With radiofrequency, the electrode remains cold, resulting in very little lateral tissue damage. With electrocautery the tissue is charred black. With radiofrequency the treated area remains normal colour.
What are the advantages of radiofrequency?
The advantages of radiofrequency are ease of ablation, faster speed and better cosmetic results
What are the problems that can be treated with radiofrequency?
Moles, warts, skin tags, corns, acne scars and keloids are some common problems that are treated at BR Institute of Dermatology and Allied Diseaseermatology with radiofrequency with excellent results.
Rhinophyma, telangiectasias, granuloma pyogenicum, keratoacanthoma and squamous and basal cell skin cancers are some less common conditions, that are also being treated at Nova Clinic with radiofrequency.